Hey first off, let me just say thank you for picking up my second book.This article is about suffering in the broadest sense. For physical or basic elements that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena..Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, is described as an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena. The opposite of suffering is pleasure.Suffering may be categorized as physical or psychological, aka mental. It may come in all degrees of intensity, from mild to intolerable. Low-magnitude suffering may be called discomfort, whereas high-magnitude suffering is called agony. Factors of duration and frequency of occurrence usually compound that of intensity. Attitudes toward suffering may vary widely, in the sufferer or other people, according to how much it is regarded as avoidable or unavoidable, useful or useless, deserved or undeserved.Suffering occurs in the lives of sentient beings in numerous manners, and often dramatically. As a result, many fields of human activity are concerned with some aspects of suffering. These aspects may include the nature of suffering, its processes, its origin and causes, its meaning and significance, its related personal, social, and cultural behaviors, its remedies, management, and uses. Suffering is the result of a feeling of alienation and insurmountable ambivalence; being a defensive attitude, its aim is the reduction of anxiety.